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From SGML to SML

- DocHeads vs. Simpletons
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
ISO standard, 1985.
Huge amount of "document archive" applications in government, military, industry, academia, ...
A successfull well-known application: HTML is designed as a simple application of SGML.


W3C Recommendation 1998.
A simple subset of SGML. Targeted for Web applications. Now de facto standard.


Canonical XML (
W3C Working Draft, June 2000.
No DTD or general entity references, "canonical" representation.
SML (Simple Markup Language) ( >and
Web community discussions, 1999
Even simpler: no processing instructions or comments, UTF-8 and UTF-16 only, considerations on element attributes, white-space,...

Occam's razor: "one should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything"